La première bataille de la Somme se solda par une offensive coûteuse et sans grand succès sur le front ouest, pendant la Première Guerre mondiale.Les Allemands occupaient des zones de tranchées abritées, situées à des points stratégiques, lorsque les Français et les Britanniques lancèrent leur attaque sur un front de 34 kilomètres au nord de la Somme. British attacks in the Ancre valley resumed in January 1917 and forced the Germans into local withdrawals to reserve lines in February before the scheduled retirement by about 25 mi (40 km) in Operation Alberich to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) in March 1917. The British Legion and others commemorate the battle on 1 July. Initial plans called for the French army to undertake the main part of the Somme offensive, supported on the northern flank by the Fourth Army of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Dugouts had been deepened from 6–9 feet (1.8–2.7 m) to 20–30 feet (6.1–9.1 m), 50 yards (46 m) apart and large enough for 25 men. Il en va de même pour les Allemands qui appliquèrent le concept de la contre-attaque systématique avec des résultats qui furent loin d’être heureux. Cependant, ce furent les Allemands qui assénèrent le premier coup en cette année de 1916 avec leur assaut sur Verdun le 21 février, ce qui força la France à déployer d’importantes ressources dans ce secteur qui se transforma rapidement en une cruelle bataille d’usure. The maintenance of the strength of the 6th Army, at the expense of the 2nd Army on the Somme, indicated that Falkenhayn intended the counter-offensive against the British to be made north of the Somme front, once the British offensive had been shattered. Entrez votre adresse courriel pour vous inscrire à ce blogue et recevoir les notifications des nouveaux articles par courriel. British operations on the Ancre from 10 January – 22 February 1917, forced the Germans back 5 mi (8.0 km) on a 4 mi (6.4 km) front, ahead of the schedule of the Alberich Bewegung (Alberich Manoeuvre/Operation Alberich) and eventually took 5,284 prisoners. C’est au cours de cette phase que la 38e Division galloise subit de lourdes pertes lors de la capture de Mametz Wood (selon la terminologie britannique) et que la 4e Armée perdit un autre 25,000 hommes entre le 1er et le 13 juillet. [25], After the Autumn Battles (Herbstschlacht) of 1915, a third defensive position another 3,000 yards (1.7 mi; 2.7 km) back from the Stützpunktlinie was begun in February 1916 and was almost complete on the Somme front when the battle began. The Germans then withdrew from much of the R. I Stellung to the R. II Stellung on 11 March, forestalling a British attack, which was not noticed by the British until dark on 12 March; the main German withdrawal from the Noyon salient to the Hindenburg Line (Operation Alberich) commenced on schedule on 16 March.[46]. The Somme defences had two inherent weaknesses that the rebuilding had not remedied. bataille de la somme 1er juillet au 18 novembre 1916 C’est une offensive menée par les alliés (France et GB notamment) pour essayer de percer les lignes allemandes en 1916. Ludendorff rejected the proposal the next day, but British attacks on the First Army – particularly the Action of Miraumont (also known as the Battle of Boom Ravine, 17–18 February) – caused Rupprecht on the night of 22 February to order a preliminary withdrawal of c. 4 mi (6.4 km) to the R. I Stellung (R. I Position). The Fourth Army took 57,470 casualties, of which 19,240 men were killed, the French Sixth Army had 1,590 casualties and the German 2nd Army had 10,000–12,000 losses. The front trenches were on a forward slope, lined by white chalk from the subsoil and easily seen by ground observers. In The World Crisis (first published in the early 1920s, reprinted in 1938), he quoted the German Reichsarchiv data, showing that on the Western Front between February and June 1916, the Germans had suffered 270,000 casualties against the French and 390,000 between July and the end of the year (Appendix J); he wrote that the Germans suffered 278,000 casualties at Verdun and that around one eighth of their casualties were suffered on "quiet" sectors. French Somme casualties were 194,451 and German casualties were c. 445,322, to which should be added 27 per cent for woundings, which would have been counted as casualties using British criteria; Anglo-French casualties on the Somme were over 600,000 and German casualties were under 600,000. The battle was intended to hasten a victory for the Allies. Organisational difficulties and deteriorating weather frustrated Joffre's intention to proceed by vigorous co-ordinated attacks by the Anglo-French armies, which became disjointed and declined in effectiveness during late September, at the same time as a revival occurred in the German defence. Each took on temporarily the identity of a British soldier who died on the first day of the Somme, and handed out information cards about that soldier. British soldiers derogatorily called the battle the "Great Fuck Up", where Haig had originally called it the "Great Push Forward. Progress of the Battle of the Somme between 1 July and 18 November. The operational objectives of the Anglo-French armies were unfulfilled, as they failed to capture Péronne and Bapaume, where the German armies maintained their positions over the winter. [44], After the Battle of the Ancre (13–18 November 1916), British attacks on the Somme front were stopped by the weather and military operations by both sides were mostly restricted to survival in the rain, snow, fog, mud fields, waterlogged trenches and shell-holes. The Battle of the Somme was one of the costliest battles of World War I. Le bombardement avait donc débuté le 24 juin (le Jour-U) et il s’était poursuivi sans relâche les jours suivants. Conclusion Après avoir répondu aux questions, rédige un paragraphe de synthèse, sur le sujet suivant : la bataille de la Somme, d hier à aujourd hui, lieu de mémoire de la Grande guerre, où vous décrirez brièvement la bataille et ces lieux de mémoire, en montrant ce qui vous a le plus marqué lors de cette visite. [31], The Battle of Delville Wood was an operation to secure the British right flank, while the centre advanced to capture the higher lying areas of High Wood and Pozières. [75][76][77] The Royal British Legion with the British Embassy in Paris and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, commemorate the battle on 1 July each year, at the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. Leur utilisation contribua entre autres à la capture de High Wood et à la percée vers la troisième ligne allemande. La bataille de la Somme de 1916 est considérée comme l'une des plus grandes opérations militaires de la Première Guerre mondiale. Experience of crossing the beaten zone showed that such lines or metalled roads could not be built quickly enough to sustain an advance, and that pausing while communications caught up allowed the defenders to recover. The silence was announced during a speech by the Prime Minister David Cameron who said, "There will be a national two-minute silence on Friday morning. Dans le cas de la 4e Armée britannique, ses soldats durent attaquer à maintes reprises les mêmes objectifs, où la vue des cadavres et des blessés des assauts précédents n’améliora en rien leur moral. Cependant, il est impossible d’exonérer des généraux comme Haig et Rawlinson pour leurs performances plus qu’ordinaires à titre de commandant, d’autant que ces hommes avaient des conceptions fondamentalement différentes de la bataille. The original Allied estimate of casualties on the Somme, made at the Chantilly Conference on 15 November 1916, was that the Germans suffered 630,000 casualties, exceeding the 485,000 suffered by the British and French. British and French aircraft and long-range guns reached well behind the front-line, where trench-digging and other work meant that troops returned to the line exhausted. On the Somme the daily carry during attacks on a 12 mi (19 km) front was 20,000 long tons (20,000 t) and a few wood roads and rail lines were inadequate for the number of lorries and roads. [18] In July there were 112 German divisions on the Western Front and 52 divisions in Russia and in November there were 121 divisions in the west and 76 divisions in the east. D., historien ©, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, La guerre américano-mexicaine (1846-1848), La participation militaire du Canada à la Première Guerre mondiale (1914-1918), La campagne militaire de Québec (1759-1760), La Première Guerre mondiale (1914-1918). "[81] On 1 July 2016, a ceremony was held in Heaton Park in north Manchester in England. When relieved, the brigade had lost 2,536 men, similar to the casualties of many brigades on 1 July. En effet, les Britanniques perdirent environ 57,400 officiers et soldats. Many officers resorted to directive command to avoid delegating to novice subordinates, although divisional commanders were given great latitude in training and planning for the attack of 1 July, since the heterogeneous nature of the 1916 army made it impossible for corps and army commanders to know the capacity of each division. Simultaneous offensives on the Eastern Front by the Russian army, on the Italian Front by the Italian army and on the Western Front by the Franco-British armies were to be carried out to deny time for the Central Powers to move troops between fronts during lulls. September became the worst month for casualties for the Germans. Première partie: le front Ouest, De l’administration des batailles: les fonctions historiques et contemporaines de l’état-major général, L’Homme et son arme : brève histoire des technologies de l’armement (2e partie), L’Homme et son arme : brève histoire des technologies de l’armement (1ère partie), La Guerre américano-mexicaine (1846-1848), La pratique de la guerre au Moyen Âge : combats et systèmes militaires, Quand le 22e bataillon (canadien-français) se fit massacrer : la bataille de Chérisy ou la mémoire québécoise impossible, Ich hatte einen Kameraden : les cimetières militaires allemands de la Grande Guerre dans le paysage franco-belge, Entre espionnage et trahison: petite histoire de l’Abwehr. [a] Philpott quoted Robin Prior (in Churchill's World Crisis As History [1983]) that the "blood test" is a crude measure compared to manpower reserves, industrial capacity, farm productivity and financial resources and that intangible factors were more influential on the course of the war, which the Allies won despite "losing" the purely quantitative test. Most of the British casualties were suffered on the front between the Albert–Bapaume road and Gommecourt to the north, which was the area where the principal German defensive effort (Schwerpunkt) was made. En clair, la journée du 1er juillet, bien qu’horrifiante, n’est nullement représentative d’une « journée typique » de combat en 1916, et encore moins pour l’ensemble de la guerre. Ce front était initialement divisé en deux secteurs d’assaut découpés par la rivière de la Somme. When the Fourth Army advance resumed in August, the wisdom of not building light railways which would be left behind was argued by some, in favour of building standard gauge lines. Il faudrait absolument éviter des parti pris de … Falkenhayn implied after the war that the psychology of German soldiers, shortage of manpower and lack of reserves made the policy inescapable, as the troops necessary to seal off breakthroughs did not exist. Le choix du terrain n’alla pas de soi au départ. German artillery was organised in a series of Sperrfeuerstreifen (barrage sectors); each officer was expected to know the batteries covering his section of the front line and the batteries ready to engage fleeting targets. Par ailleurs, la campagne de la Somme est officiellement constituée de douze batailles séparées, dont la dernière se conclut le 18 novembre 1916 lorsque la 51e Division écossaise prit le village de Beaumont-Hamel (un objectif du 1er juillet). Falkenhayn planned to defeat the large number of reserves which the Entente could move into the path of a breakthrough, by threatening a sensitive point close to the existing front line and provoking the French into counter-attacking German positions. The German offensive at Verdun was intended to threaten the capture of the city and induce the French to fight an attrition battle, in which German advantages of terrain and firepower would cause the French disproportionate casualties. En pratique, un constat demeure: la bataille fut mal dirigée. Quant à Haig, celui-ci préférait une bataille d’envergure où il fallait concentrer en un point les ressources nécessaires pour obtenir la fameuse percée du front. xx. Déroulement de la bataille Attaques aériennes allemandes Premiers bombardements. Numerous meetings were held by Joffre, Haig, Foch, General Sir Henry Rawlinson (commander of the British Fourth Army) and Fayolle to co-ordinate joint attacks by the four armies, all of which broke down. Il s’agissait de soldats recrus, sans expérience militaire préalable, qui s’étaient enrôlés ensemble dans des unités de Pals et de Chums, c’est-à-dire des bataillons qui recrutaient régulièrement sur une base locale, si bien que tout le monde ou presque se connaissait à l’intérieur de ces formations. Le champ de bataille de la Somme s’étend du village de Gommecourt au nord vers celui de Chaulnes au sud, ce qui représente un front d’une largeur approximative de 40 kilomètres. La vérification e-mail a échoué, veuillez réessayer. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_the_Somme&oldid=1003479307, Battles of the Western Front (World War I), Battles of World War I involving Australia, Battles of World War I involving New Zealand, Battles of World War I involving South Africa, Battles of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Battles involving the French Foreign Legion, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1 July 1916 – 18 November 1916 (140 days), All allied objectives achieved at a cost of high casualties, This page was last edited on 29 January 2021, at 04:26. The battle was the debut of the Canadian Corps, the New Zealand Division and tanks of the Heavy Branch of the Machine Gun Corps on the Somme. As preparations for the offensive at Arras continued, the British attempted to keep German attention on the Somme front. Field artillery fired a creeping barrage and the attacking waves pushed up close behind it in no man's land, leaving them only a short distance to cross when the barrage lifted from the German front trench. It is not entirely clear what he means by this. Les pertes totales sont estimées à 1 200 000 hommes (tués, blessés, disparus), dont 500 000 dans le camp britannique et autant dans l… [45] On 22/23 February, the Germans fell back another 3 mi (4.8 km) on a 15 mi (24 km) front. [37], The Battle of Morval was an attack by the Fourth Army on Morval, Gueudecourt and Lesboeufs held by the German 1st Army, which had been the final objectives of the Battle of Flers–Courcelette (15–22 September). [38], The Battle of Thiepval Ridge was the first large offensive mounted by the Reserve Army of Lieutenant General Hubert Gough and was intended to benefit from the Fourth Army attack at Morval by starting 24 hours afterwards. Et cela, aussi bien du côté du neuf que des produits La Bataille De La Somme occasion. The defenders on the commanding ground north of the road inflicted a huge defeat on the British infantry, who had an unprecedented number of casualties. The attack was postponed to combine with attacks by the French Sixth Army on Combles, south of Morval and because of rain. Double and triple thickness wire was used and laid 3–5 feet (0.91–1.52 m) high. Withdrawing to the new line was not an easy decision and the German high command struggled over it during the winter of 1916–1917. In 2016, historian Peter Barton argued in a series of three television programmes that the Battle of the Somme should be regarded as a German defensive victory. LA BATAILLE DE LA SOMME La bataille de la Somme débuta le 1er juillet 1916 et prit fin le 18 novembre1916. [4] Prior and Wilson used Churchill's research and wrote that the British suffered 420,000 casualties from 1 July to mid-November (c. 3,600 per day) in inflicting c. 280,000 German casualties and offer no figures for French casualties or the losses they inflicted on the Germans. Il est en effet un retour à la " Grande Guerre " et à l'une de ses batailles observée comme un tournant : celle de la Somme (1er juillet - … Le nombre de combattants perdus par cette armée ce jour-là doit être mis en perspective face aux pertes d’ensemble de ces 142 journées d’opérations, à savoir quelque 415,000 hommes tués, blessés et disparus. Impossible de partager les articles de votre blog par e-mail. bataille de la somme 1er juillet au 18 novembre 1916 [78] The first day of the Battle of the Somme is commemorated in Newfoundland, remembering the "Best of the Best" at 11 am on the Sunday nearest to 1 July. 400 000 Britanniques et 200 000 Français se lancent à l’assaut de 50 000 Allemands retranchés sur la Somme, de Gommecourt au nord à Fouquescourt au sud. Conclusion Seulement 125 milles carrés obtenus. Avant la bataille Après la bataille Général Douglas Haig MG Scharfshutzentrupps En tout, 1 250 000 hommes avaient été tués ou blessés. This school of thought sets the battle in a context of a general Allied offensive in 1916 and notes that German and French writing on the battle puts it in a continental perspective. Rappelons encore une fois que la bataille de la Somme vit une implication non négligeable de l’armée française, qui laissa sur le terrain quelque 200,000 de ses soldats entre juillet et novembre. At a conference at Cambrai on 5 September, a decision was taken to build a new defensive line well behind the Somme front. [53] The European powers had begun the war with trained armies of regulars and reservists, which were wasting assets. Et cela, aussi bien du côté du neuf que des produits Bataille De La Somme occasion. Début de la bataille. [93], WWI battle between France and Britain against Germany on the Western Front. The front line had been increased from one trench line to a position of three lines 150–200 yards (140–180 m) apart, the first trench (Kampfgraben) occupied by sentry groups, the second (Wohngraben) for the bulk of the front-trench garrison and the third trench for local reserves. Political calculation, concern for Allied morale and Joffre's pressure for a continuation of attacks in France, to prevent German troop transfers to Russia and Italy also influenced Haig.